What is Varicosis?
Varicosis is inadequacy in surface veins that carry the dirty blood in the veins to the lungs to be cleaned. Dirty blood in the legs is sent to the lungs, being pumped with the help of various factors. The valves found in the leg veins prevent this blood from returning with gravity. If these valves become unable to perform their function due to various familial (hereditary) and other factors, the blood sent to the lungs escapes back with the pull of gravity (reflux) and pools in the leg veins, and the disease known as varicosis emerges. These complaints for which measures aren’t taken over time can lead to sores that don’t heal in the future and serious problems like bleeding and intravenous clotting. These complaints are seen in one in four women. Varicosis can be seen at rates not to be underestimated in men.
How does varicosis make itself evident?
*Tired, heavy, or restless legs
*Feeling of saturation and fatigue in the legs that emerges toward the evening.
*Burning feeling in the leg
*Itchiness, cramps, and tension
Pain in sinking or pulling calves
*Swelling in the wrists or joints
*Red or blue capillary varicosis
These may be just a complaint, just like they all may be seen. Remember that patients may have one or more of these complaints without displaying any symptoms of varicosis.
How is varicosis diagnosed?
After a detailed examination and investigation, the vein is imaged with a color, Doppler ultrasound, and it must be determined in which veins the problem is, and a blood vessel map must be produced. It must be noted which veins are sick, how sick they are, how much damage this vein previously suffered, and, if it has clotted, how much residue remains. Because all these are very important to determine the course and type of treatment.
The treatment type is determined after the detailed color Doppler examination at our clinic, and the patient is approached by specifying the right method of treatment. When we correctly implement the right method of treatment, the treatment results of are patient are better.
What happens if varicosis is not treated?
- Although varicosis creates cosmetic problems, the worst aspect is that it can lead to more critical circumstances. What are these?
- Bleeding, an emergency situation: It can even lead to serious types of bleeding as well as bruising as a result of bleeding beneath the skin.
- Venous ulcer (Varicosis sore): If a painful, flowing, deepening infection breaks that unbelievably reduces the quality of life for people, this is a situation that can lead to the loss of the leg.
- Formation of clots in varicosis: Because there is blood accumulation in surface varicosis, this movement-restricted blood is inclined to clot. When clotting occurs, rash, pain, and an increase in discomfort (thrombophlebitis) can occur after hardening in the varicosis and the inflammation.
- Deep vein thrombosis: This can cause clotting in deep main veins in our patients. This situation is not present in every patient, and there can be diameter increase, edema, hardening, and pain in the leg.
- Pulmonary embolism (Clot forming in the lungs): Deep vein thrombosis, which we briefly mentioned before, is the situation in which a piece of a clot breaks off and clogs the blood vessels in the lungs. If a large clot reaches the main arteries, it is a situation of instant death. And if it reaches smaller lungs, it is a dangerous situation that concludes with serious respiratory problems, paint, and admission to the intensive care unit.
- Pain, cramps, and unease in varicosis: These complaints start especially at night or while resting and lead to problems falling asleep.
- Pain and feelings of saturation in the legs
- Tingling and burning in the legs
Types of Varicosis
1) Telangiectasias / Spider Veins:
We call the blood vessels that appear in the skin in thin lines “telangiectasias”. Although the underlying cause can be tied to some diseases, they generally do not cause bleeding or bruising. These create more cosmetic problems. These blood vessels can be swollen from the skin, branching out like a spider web, or punctuated like a mole. Although more visible on the face around the nose and under the eyes, they can spread to the neck. They can even be seen in the shoulders and back and chest region. We more frequently encounter telangiectasias in the legs. Their diameters are around 1-2 mm and have a red-purple color.
2) Reticular Varicosis Veins:
It is green varicosis that bulges slightly from the skin. Their diameters range between 2-4 mm.
3) Large Varicosis:
It is clear varicosis that bulges slightly from the skin. With a diameter larger than 4 mm.
The Causes of Varicosis
-Professions that lead to standing or sitting for a long time, immobility, and this situation.
-The existence of varicosis in family history is the most frequent causes.
Which Treatment Is Suitable for You? What path should be followed?
We first must draw our roadmap. The same method cannot be administered to each patient. Our plans comprise the following:
1) Examination: To understand the size, type, and location of your varicosis.
2) Detailed color Doppler ultrasound: Do you have venous inadequacy or not? If applicable, is it in a surface or deep system? In which blood vessels? To what degree? How much have your blood vessels expanded and deteriorated? The answer to all these is in the Doppler ultrasound.
3) Let’s plan the varicosis form of treatment and make a roadmap.
4) Treatment: If there is inadequacy, the treatment of veins that exhibit reflux (inadequacy) with laser, radiofrequency, or bonding methods, later the foam treatments, and then capillary vessel laser treatments. If there is no venous inadequacy, direct foam treatment, and capillary blood vessel laser treatments. All these treatments are done in a day without stitches or a hospital admission and with local anesthesia.
5) If necessary, wearing varicosis socks for the short term, compliance with treatments.
Are varicosis treatments done in the summer?
It is recommended that varicosis surgical methods are performed during the winter to reduce the risk of bleeding and infection. Varicosis is more easily treated with developed technologies and methods. It is possible to prevent varicosis with techniques that last 10-30 minutes without stitches or cutting the skin. Varicosis can now be treated in the summer. The application places must not see sunlight for 3-5 days in capillary blood vessel radiofrequency applications with laser, radiofrequency, and bonding procedures done instead of surgery. Don’t forget that you can wear varicosis socks for a short while in some treatments. You can choose finer varicosis socks in the summer months.
Telangiectasias and Spider Veins in the face region
We call the blood vessels that appear in the skin in thin lines “telangiectasias”. Although the underlying cause can be tied to some diseases, they generally do not cause bleeding or bruising. They create more cosmetic problems.
These blood vessels can be swollen from the skin, branching out like a spider web, or punctuated like a mole. Although more visible on the face around the nose and under the eyes, they can spread to the neck. They can even be seen in the shoulders and back and chest region. We more frequently encounter telangiectasias in the legs.
Why Do We Have Telangiectasias?
-Long exposure to the cold or sun
-Estrogen excess (Some feminine disorders or the use of birth control pills-medications that contain estrogen)
– Excess weight, obesity
-Incorrect face cleaning techniques (Such as washing with very hot water, excessive rubbing)
Are some of the causes.
How do we treat it?
We apply radiofrequency and laser, an effective and reliable method, in the treatment of telangiectasias at our clinic. We generally remove telangiectasias at a high right in one or a few sessions according to their frequency on the face.
You must use the care cream we will prescribe after the procedure. And the region of the procedure must not be exposed to sunlight, and, if it is, high-factor protective sunscreen must be used. A light rash and discomfort that may form heals within a few days. The decision for the necessity of further sessions is made at the checkup examination to be conducted 3-4 weeks after the procedure. And lasers are applied to the capillary blood vessels again if necessary. These additional sessions are generally sufficient.
Deep Vein Thrombosis
The blood vessels that carry blood to the heart in the body are the veins. Veins are divided into surface and deep veins. Understood from their names, surface veins are close to our skin, and deep veins are our veins that are deeper inside. There are valves in both groups of veins, different in our deep veins. These two groups of veins are not distinct from one another and occasionally unite.
Substances and incidents regarding bleeding and clotting in our bodies normally are in a state of balance. Neither bleeding nor clotting occurs, and the flow of the blood is preserved. In situations where this balance is broken, tendency toward bleeding or clotting are seen.
If substances and incidents that initiate or accelerate clotting increase, abnormal clotting activities may begin. In this situation, clots that restrict and even clog blood vessels (thrombosis) emerge. When one of our veins becomes clogged, if the clogged vein is a vein that is far from the surface of the skin, this situation is called “deep vein thrombosis”. It is most frequently seen in leg veins. Sometimes clots can break off and go to the lungs. Pieces (emboli) that break off from the clot (thrombosis) go to the lungs and can clog one of the large veins here.
The following symptoms and findings can evoke embolisms:
– Swelling in the legs or arms (based on the place where it forms)
– Color change
– Feeling of swelling, tension, and hardness
– Tension and pain in the calves
– Heat difference between legs
– Saturation in visible veins (one-sided)
Remember that deep vein thrombosis can progress without symptoms.
Sudden shortness of breath and sever chest pain are symptoms of a clot in the lungs, a “pulmonary embolism”.
The views of the physician in diagnosis are important after the examination. A “Color Doppler ultrasound” is important in diagnosis. Medicinal vein film (venography) is an advanced workup used occasionally in diagnosis.
Physicians have some goals in treatment. These are to prevent the growth of the clot, to prevent the formation of a new clot, and to prevent another blood vessel from clogging by breaking of pieces of clots.
Apart from some situations that require surgery, the treatment of deep vein thrombosis is done with drugs.
The drugs used in the treatment are blood thinners and prevent the clotting of the blood. These drugs are called “anticoagulants”. These drugs can be taken orally, intravenously, or under the skin.
The direct application of the drug under the skin reduces the problems of small bleeding and bruising problems that may arise.
Thrombophlebitis is the inflammation of clots in blood vessels. This means that there is both a clot in the veins and that vein has clogged and there is inflammation. If there is clotting in a vein, this is called vein thrombosis, and if there is inflamed clotting, this is called thrombophlebitis.
When thrombophlebitis occurs in surface blood vessels, there is a clot along that blood vessel, and the blood vessel is clogged, hardens, and can become visible in the form of a red line. The vein is painful to touch, and hardening is felt along the blood vessel. It is generally easy to diagnose. The physician diagnoses blood vessels with phlebitis when examining them. If there is thrombophlebitis in a little larger blood vessels, a color Doppler ultrasound examination may be necessary.
If it has formed in a very small blood vessel, cold applications, and antiinflammatory medications can be sufficient.
If larger blood vessels have been affected, bedrest may be necessary, and if in the arms or legs, raising up and resting may be necessary. Blood thinning treatment may rarely be necessary.